Chicago (NB) Citation Style Guide

Chicago style citation is definitely not like “all those other styles”.

And students who have to use it know it perfectly well (luckily or unluckily).

So what’s so special about Chicago reference style?

First, it may be divided into two systems (“author-date” and “notes and bibliography”) instead of one.

(Sounds like a bonus, but is it?)

Second, notes and bibliography system (that is the most popular one for sure) gives students an extra headache.


Because apart from the general reference list, they have to format endnotes and footnotes.

As a result, paper formatting turns out to be a tedious thing…

… but not with this guide, nor with our website.

Our definite guide to Chicago style will provide you will all necessary examples and information. No more struggling with footnotes, endnotes – whatever! – because you have this guide. Just copy or download already written example and change author’s name, title, and other information. Alternatively, you can try out the Chicago title page maker and simply fill in the required fields.

Quick and easy!

General information

At the end of the paper, you should have a full list of the sources (called “Bibliography”) cited in the paper. With footnotes, you can leave comments concerning the sources cited in the paper.

The general rules are:

  • Make footnote or endnote every time when you use a source. This rule works for all possible cases, such as direct quotes, paraphrasing, or summarizing someone’s ideas.
  • The section with endnotes is usually found at the end of the paper.
  • The first note should present all the information related to the source (including the author’s full name, a title of the source, and other relevant facts).
  • If the source is cited more than once, subsequent notes should only include the last name of the author, a short title (if the original title consists of more than four words), and the number(s) of the cited page(s).
  • If the source is cited two or more times in a row, a note should include the abbreviation “Ibid.” In case a writer uses the same source but a different page number, the matching footnote should contain “Ibid,” a comma, and new page number(s) after the comma.


The word “footnotes” comes from the location of citations. It means (obviously) that they appear at the bottom (footer) part of a page.

Chicago also supports “endnotes” at the end of chapters, articles, etc. Basically, endnotes can be found after separate text sections, but they should always be presented before bibliographical entries. The page with endnotes should be titled “Notes.”

Even though the use of footnotes is rather common, endnotes may be required sometimes. Footnotes should always be located on the page to which they refer.

The initial footnote should be indented (left margin). All the succeeding lines of text should be formatted flush left. The notes should be separated by an additional line space.

General Format

  • Margins are set as 1” (2.54 cm).
  • Font is Times New Roman, Arial, or Palatino, and the font size is 12 pt.
  • Text of the paper is usually double-spaced, but single spacing is used to format block quotations, as well as titles of tables and figures.
  • Single spacing is also used within notes and bibliographical entries.
  • While formatting bibliographical entries, it is necessary to add an extra space before and after the entry.
  • Pagination starts with the page where the text is provided.

Title Page

  • The title of the paper is usually written in uppercase, and it is provided in the center of the page.
  • A student’s name, a tutor’s name, the class information, and date are provided below (in several lines), and this information is single-spaced and written in sentence case.

Download Example

Download Example

Bibliography Page

  • For Chicago (Notes and Bibliography), label the reference page “Bibliography”.
  • Do not forget to add two extra lines between your heading “Bibliography” and the following bibliographical entry.
  • Bibliographical entries are arranged alphabetically.
  • Bibliographical entries are single-spaced.
  • While formatting bibliographical entries, it is necessary to add an extra space before and after each entry.

Download Example

Further study